The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space that is also commonly known as Roscosmos is the coordination hub for all space activates in Russia and is responsible for general aerospace research and also for the space science program of the Russian Federation.
Roscosmos who's headquarters are located in Moscow and Its Main Mission Control near-by Korolev was known as the Russian Federal Space Agency previously, which was formed in 1992. The new corporation was formed from the merge of the United Rocket and Space Corporation and the agency, a joint sector that was meant to bolster the space sector.
Soon after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Roscosmos came to be in an altogether different area. The agency then poured its barely adequate resources into the International Space Station that to this day remains a major participant in the effort.
Now, besides the obvious that we've come to know about, what does Roscosmos do?
Roscosmos organizes certification of technologies for scientific and socioeconomic uses, utilizes technology for the benefit of the program, joins with the Defense Ministry in launches, research etc and also organizes activities under commercial space projects and promotes their projects.
It is also tasked with the setting the stage for the future use of results of space activities in the economic and social development of Russia.
Roscosmos, if you look at its list of achievements, got many of its firsts that included The First Human in Space on the go and still continues to run the Star City Cosmonaut Training Centre as well. The cosmonauts at Roscosmos have had their permanent presence on the International Space Station and have performed many vital functions till date. Their contribution of so much hardware in return has allowed Russia to send numerous cosmonauts to the station. Among Many of the three-person Soyuz crews that head to the station for long-term stays, there has always been at least one Russian on board with them.
Russia has also been a part of The ISS construction right from the beginning. In 1998, the first element to be launched was The Zarya control module. If not all, at least some of Roscosmos's contributions also include a docking hatch, The Research Module Rassvet, the Zvezda service module, and the regular cargo flights to the ISS using Progress spacecraft. Coming to some of the major Russia's International programs, they include: RD-180, Spektr, KOSPAS-SARSAT and many more in the list. Also, not to forget that the only platform to get humans to the space station right now is provided by Russia: The Soyuz spacecraft, a launch complex, that was formerly a part of the Soviet Union and now under lease by the Russians that was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Apart from all this, Roscosmos has been a major benefactor of launch services to many other countries even though its photon rocket line has had a few unexpected failures over the years. And in addition to launching satellites for other countries, not limiting itself to anything, Roscosmos has also done numerous satellite missions of its very own that includes the Earth observation, telecommunications, military satellites and The Glosnass navigation satellites as well.
Russia now is looking forward to, ExoMars, a major Mars mission which it is doing along with the European Space Agency. The first leg of ExoMars -the Trace Gas Orbiter that was launched successfully in 2016, due to some scheduling problems the rover was delayed by two years until an expected launch that is to be in the year of 2020. This highly awaited mission by Roscosmos is set with high hopes and is expected to break the streak of several failed Mars missions, counting in the most recent- The Fobos-Grunt failure where the probe could not break free of The Earth's orbit, that occurred in the year 2012.
According to the reports by the media, Russia is currently also interested in developing a series of robotic moon missions, which would dub Luna-Glob( New-Moon Orbiter) The unmanned spacecraft that carried scientific instruments used for measuring cosmic rays, dust, and as well as tools that as part of the unmanned mission to the moon will be used for experiments related to astrophysics. However, due to the restraints related to the budget the first of these missions have been pushed back until at least the year of 2025.
Official Link: Roscosmos